baker’s formulas

slow rise baguettes

From “BREAD: A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes,” by Jeffrey Hamelman, published by John Wiley & Sons.

metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 10kg 100.0%
water 7kg 70.0%
salt 0.2kg 2.0%
yeast (fresh) 0.75kg 0.75%
total yield 17.275kg 172.75%
mixing
Place all the ingredients in the mixing bowl. Mix for 700 to 800 revolutions of the dough hook, on first speed only. The dough will be underdeveloped at this point. Leave the dough in the mixing bowl.
desired dough temperature
75°F in winter, 72°F in summer
bulk fermentation
1 hour
folding
Fold the dough 3 times, at 20-minute intervals, by turning on the mixer for several seconds. Once the third fold is performed, the dough will be supple and reasonably strong
dividing
Depending upon the number of baguettes required, divide the dough into the appropriate weight and place into buckets. For instance, to process 20 baguettes per bucket, dough weight is 8kg for 0.4kg baguettes. Cover the buckets and place into a 50°F cooler. They can remain at this temperature for up to 18 hours
shaping
Remove the buckets from the cooler and divide the dough. Pre-shape, and when relaxed, shape to baguettes. Place with seams up on lightly floured couche linen. Cover to prevent the formation of a crust
final fermentation
1.5-2 hours at 75°F
baking
With normal steam, 460°F. Bake this bread till it achieves a full rich crust color. A full bake is recommended to ensure a crisp crust
deli rye
deli rye
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 8kg 80%
whole rye flour 2kg 20%
water 7kg 70%
salt 0.2kg 2%
yeast 0.125kg 1.25%
caraway 0.125kg 1.25%
total yield 17.45kg 174.5%
note
Approximately 16 hours before the mix, disperse the sourdough culture into the water, add the rye flour and mix till smooth. Cover with plastic and leave at room temperature to ripen. Pre-fermented flour = 20%
mixing
Mix the final dough by adding all the ingredients to the mixer (first remove a portion of the rye to perpetuate the culture). If using a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes to incorporate ingredients. Check the hydration and correct as necessary: the dough should have a moderate looseness. Mix on second speed for about 3 minutes. Gluten development will be moderate
desired dough temperature
76-78°F
bulk fermentation
1 hour
shaping
Divide and shape round or oval loaves of desired weight
final proof
50-60 minutes
baking
Bake in a steamed oven at 450°F for 36-40 minutes (for a 0.75kg loaf)
sourdough
metric baker's %
whole rye flour 2kg 100%
water 1.66kg 83%
culture 0.2kg 10%
total yield 3.86kg 193%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 8kg
water 7kg
salt 0.2kg
yeast 0.125kg
sourdough 0.125kg
caraway 0.125kg
total yield 17.45kg
ciabatta bread
ciabatta
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 10kg 100%
water 7.6kg 76%
salt 0.2kg 2%
yeast 0.12kg 1.2%
total yield 17.92kg 179.2%
biga
Mix all the ingredients together. Cover and leave at room temperature until ripe, about 16 hours. Pre-fermented flour = 30%
final dough
Add all the ingredients to the mixing bowl, and mix on first speed for 3 minutes to incorporate the ingredients. Adjust the hydration as necessary. Mix on second speed for an additional 4-5 minutes, to moderate gluten development. As an alternative, the dough can be mixed using the autolyse-repos technique
desired dough temperature
75°F
bulk fermentation
2 hours, with a fold after 1 hour
shaping
Divide the dough into rectangles weighing 0.57kg. Place the loaves on well-floured bread boards with the good side down
final proof
About 1 hour
baking
Bake at 460°F: steam the oven, load the bread, and steam again. Rectangular loaves weighing 0.57kg bake in approximately 36 minutes
biga
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 3kg 100%
water 1.8kg 60%
yeast 0.003kg 0.1%
total yield 4.803kg 160.1%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 7kg
water 5.8kg
salt 0.2kg
yeast 0.117kg
biga 4.803kg
total yield 17.92kg
five seed sourdough
metric baker's %
King Arthur Select Artisan Flour 2.5kg 25%
King Arthur Baker's Classic Organic Flour 5kg 50%
King Arthur Whole Wheat Organic Flour 2.5kg 25%
whole flax seeds 0.8kg 8%
sunflower seeds 0.7kg 7%
oats 0.5kg 5%
rye chops 0.5kg 5%
water 8.8kg 88%
salt 0.22kg 2.2%
yeast 0.02kg 0.2%
total yield 21.54kg 215.4%
note
Approximately 16 hours before mixing the final dough, mix together the ingredients for the liquid levain build. Let sit at room temperature, covered. At the same time, combine the soaker ingredients. Cover these and let sit at room temperature. Pre-fermented flour = 25%
mixing
Mix the final dough by adding all the ingredients to the mixer (first remove a portion of the liquid levain to perpetuate the culture). In a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes, then turn the mixer to second and mix to moderate gluten development, about 4 minutes
desired dough temperature
75-78°F
bulk fermentation
2-2.5 hours, with a fold half-way through
shaping
Divide, shape and cover the loaves for the final proofing
baking
Bake at 450°F with steam. Loaves weighing 0.75kg should bake for 36-40 minutes. The loaves can also be retarded after shaping. In this case, a 2 hour bulk fermentation is ample
liquid levain
metric baker's %
Select Artisan Flour 2.5kg 100%
water 3.125kg 125%
sourdough culture 0.5kg 20%
total yield 5.625kg 245%
soaker
metric baker's %
rye chops 0.5kg 27%
whole flax seeds 0.8kg 27%
sunflower seeds 0.7kg 23%
oats 0.5kg 23%
water 2.75kg 110%
salt 0.22kg 6.8%
total yield 5.47kg 216.8%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Baker's Classic Flour 5kg
whole wheat flour 2.5kg
water 2.925kg
yeast 0.02kg
liquid levain 5.625kg
soaker 5.47kg
total yield 21.54kg
flax seed rye with an old bread soaker

From “BREAD: A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes,” by Jeffrey Hamelman, published by John Wiley & Sons.

metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 6kg 60%
whole rye flour 4kg 40%
flax seeds 1kg 10%
old bread 0.8kg 8%
water 8.03kg 80.3%
salt 0.2kg 2%
yeast (fresh) 0.13kg 1.3%
total yield 20.16kg 201.6%
rye sourdough
Prepare the sourdough and ripen for 14-16 hours at 70°F
soaker
Prepare the soaker when making the sourdough. Cube the old bread. Put it into a container with the flax seeds and add the soaker water. Cover and leave at room temperature
mixing
Add all the ingredients to the mixing bowl. In a spiral mixer, mix for 3 minutes on first speed. The dough will be somewhat loose. Mix on second speed for about 4 minutes, to moderate gluten development
desired dough temperature
78°F
bulk fermentation
1 hour
dividing + shaping
Divide the dough into 0.68kg pieces. Shape round. Press the tops of the loaves into a moistened cloth and then into a seed blend if desired
final fermentation
50-60 minutes at 80°F
baking
With normal steam, 460°F for 15 minutes, then lower the oven temperature to 440°F and bake for an additional 25-30 minutes. A full bake brings out the deepest fragrances and flavors
sourdough
metric baker's %
whole rye flour 4kg 100%
water 3.32kg 83%
mature sourdough culture 0.2kg 5%
total yield 7.52kg 188%
soaker
metric baker's %
old bread (cubed) 0.8kg 44.4%
flax seeds 1kg 55.6%
water 3kg 166.7%
total yield 4.8kg 266.7%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 6kg
water 1.71kg
salt 0.2kg
yeast (fresh) 0.13kg
sourdough 7.32kg
soaker 4.8kg
total yield 20.16kg
grissini

From “BREAD: A Baker’s Book of Techniques and Recipes,” by Jeffrey Hamelman, published by John Wiley & Sons.

metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 1.52kg 100%
water 0.79kg 52%
olive oil 0.182kg 12%
butter 0.152kg 10%
salt 0.03kg 2%
yeast (fresh) 0.046kg 3%
total yield 2.72kg 179%
mixing
For large-scale production of grissini (50 dozen or more), a full-sized spiral mixer can be used. For smaller quantities (3 to 24 dozen), a small spiral mixer or 20- to 30-quart planetary mixer works well. Place all the ingredients in the mixing bowl. In a planetarystyle mixer, mix on first speed until the ingredients are incorporated, about 3 minutes. The dough should be of medium consistency. Turn the mixer to second speed and mix for another 4 or 5 minutes, to a moderate gluten development
desired dough temperature
76°F
bulk fermentation
1 hour
dividing
If using a 36-part dough divider, divide the dough into 2 pieces weighing 3 pounds (1.36kg) each. If scaling the bread sticks individually, divide the dough into 38g (1.33oz) portions. Let the divided pieces rest on a lightly floured work surface, covered with plastic, for about 10-15 minutes.
shaping
Roll or stretch the pieces, trying to keep an even dimension along the length, to 14-16 inches long. Before transferring to baking sheets, the individual bread sticks can be rolled in a tray of fine semolina if desired; this adds a bit of texture to the taste. An alternative means of dividing the dough is to press it into a flat rectangle on a floured bench and cut it into thin strips with a pizza wheel
baking
By the time the bread sticks have been divided, they can be baked right away with no further proofing. Bake at 380°F for about 20 minutes, or until golden brown. Once cool, the bread sticks can be stored in airtight containers for up to 5 days
Variations:
roasted garlic grissini
For the 2.72kg batch size, 3 bulbs of garlic are needed; the home-sized batch of 2 pounds requires 1 bulb. To prepare the garlic, cut about 1/2 inch off the top of whole bulbs, and place the bulbs right side up on a baking sheet. There is no need to peel the bulbs. Sprinkle a light coat of olive oil on the exposed cloves. Cover the baking sheet with aluminum foil and bake at about 350°F until the garlic is soft, about 45 minutes. Remove the garlic from its husk by squeezing the individual cloves. Add the garlic to the dough at the beginning of the mix
cheese grissini
For this variation, use good-quality Parmesan or Gruyère cheese. The 2.72kg batch size needs 0.34 pound of cheese (10% of the flour weight). Add the grated cheese at the beginning of the mix. Alternatively, roll the stretched bread sticks in a bed of grated cheese and ground black pepper
oatmeal bread
oatmeal bread
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 7.5kg 75%
whole wheat flour 2.5kg 25%
water 6.25kg 62.5%
yeast 0.25kg 2.5%
salt 0.225kg 2.3%
oil 0.75kg 7.5%
honey 0.75kg 7.5%
whole milk 1.125kg 11.3%
thick rolled oats 1.65kg 16.5%
total yield 21kg 210%
mixing
Soak the oats in the milk for 20 minutes. Add all the remaining ingredients to the mixer. In a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes to incorporate the ingredients. Mix for an additional 3-4 minutes, to a moderately strong gluten development
desired dough temperature
76°F
bulk fermentation
2 hours, with a fold after 1 hour
dividing
Divide the dough into 0.68kg pieces if making 9"x5" loaf pan breads
shaping
Shape into logs, dip the top surface into a damp cloth, and then into a sheet pan with raw oats. Place the loaves into the strap pans.
baking
Proof fully and bake at 425°F for about 36 minutes. Small rolls can also be made with the dough
semolina bread
semolina bread
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 4kg 40%
durum 6kg 60%
water 7.26kg 72.6%
salt 0.2kg 2%
sesame (toasted) 0.5kg 5%
total yield 17.96kg 179.6%
note
Approximately 16 hours before mixing the final dough, mix together the ingredients for the liquid levain build. Let sit at room temperature, covered. Pre-fermented flour = 20%
mixing
Mix the final dough by adding all the ingredients to the mixer (first remove a portion of the liquid levain to perpetuate the culture). In a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes, then turn the mixer to second and mix to moderate gluten development, about 3 to 4 minutes
desired dough temperature
75°F-78°F
bulk fermentation
2-2½ hours, with a fold half-way through
shaping
Divide, shape and cover the loaves for the final proofing
baking
Bake at 450°F with steam. Loaves weighing 0.75kg should bake for 36-40 minutes. The loaves can also be retarded overnight before baking. In this case, a 2 hour bulk fermentation is ample
liquid levain
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 2kg 100%
water 2.5kg 125%
culture 0.4kg 22%
total yield 4.5kg 247%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 2kg
durum 6kg
water 4.76kg
salt 0.2kg
liquid levain 4.5kg
sesame 0.5kg
total yield 17.96kg
Sprouted Grain Pain Rustique
Sprouted Grain Pain Rustique
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 2.052kg 55%
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 0.560kg 15%
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 0.858kg 23%
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.261kg 7%
water 2.985kg 80%
yeast (fresh) 0.007kg 0.2%
salt 0.075kg 2%
golden and dark raisins (soaked) 1.119kg 30%
white starter 0.082kg 2.2%
total yield 8kg 214.4%
liquid levain
Mix until smooth with water at 60°F, leave at cool room temperature for 12-15 hours
mixing
Mix on first speed for 10 minutes
desired dough temperature
73°F-78°F
first fermentation
3 hours 15 minutes
folding
4 folds first 2 hours, then let rest for 75 minutes
dividing + shaping
Divide into 500g pieces, turn our onto a heavily floured table and shape into rectangles in the style of Ciabatta
proofing
Place on floured linen, floured side down, 50-60 minutes at room temperature
scoring
Criss cross on floured side
baking
Bake at 480°F for 35-40 minutes
liquid levain
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 0.410kg 100%
water 0.410kg 100%
culture 0.082kg 20%
total yield 0.903kg 220%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 1.642kg
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 0.560kg
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 0.858kg
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.261kg
water 2.575kg
yeast (fresh) 0.007kg
salt 0.075kg
golden and dark raisins (soaked) 1.119kg
white starter 0.903kg
total yield 8kg
Sprouted Grain Batard
Sprouted Grain Batard
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 1.042kg 25%
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 1.042kg 25%
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 1.667kg 40%
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.417kg 10%
water 3.542kg 85%
honey 0.167kg 4%
yeast (fresh) 0.042kg 1%
salt 0.083kg 2%
total yield 8kg 192%
poolish
Mix with water at 60°F until smooth, leave at cool room temperature for 12-15 hours
mixing
Mix on first speed for 4 minutes, mix on second speed for 3 minutes
desired dough temperature
73°F-78°F
first fermentation
2 hours
folding
1 fold at 60 minutes
dividing + shaping
Divide into 500g pieces, preshape into rounds, let rest for 20 minutes then shape into batard
proofing
Floured linen, seam up, 60-90 minutes at room temperature
scoring
single score
baking
Bake at 460°F for 35 minutes with steam
poolish
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 1.042kg 100%
water 1.042kg 100%
yeast (fresh) 0.001kg 0.1%
total yield 2.084kg 200.1%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 1.042kg
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 1.667kg
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.417kg
water 2.500kg
honey 0.167kg
yeast (fresh) 0.041kg
salt 0.083kg
poolish 2.084kg
total yield 8kg
Sprouted Wheat Baguette
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 1.416kg 30%
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 0.944kg 20%
King Arthur Sprouted Wheat Flour 2.359kg 50%
water 3.916kg 83%
salt 0.094kg 2%
honey 0.047kg 1%
yeast (fresh) 0.024kg 0.5%
total yield 8.8kg 186.5%
note
Mix preferments by hand until smooth, leave at cool room temperature for 12-14 hours
autolyse
Mix flour, water, and poolish on first speed for 3-4 minutes until incorporated and let rest for 20 minutes
mixing
Mix final dough on first speed for 3 minutes, on second speed for 1 minute
desired dough temperature
74-75°F
bulk fermentation
120 minutes with 1 fold at 60 minutes
shaping
divide into 400 gram pieces and shape into tubes, let rest for 15 minutes then shape into baguette
final proof
place into couche for proofing 45-50 minutes
baking
Bake in a deck oven at 450°F with steam for 22-24 minutes, open damper at 18 minutes
poolish
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 0.944kg 100%
water 0.944kg 100%
yeast (fresh) 0.001kg 0.05%
total yield 1.888kg 200.1%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 1.416kg
King Arthur Sprouted Wheat Flour 2.359kg
water 2.973kg
salt 0.094kg
honey 0.047kg
yeast (fresh) 0.023kg
poolish 1.888kg
total yield 8.8kg
Sprouted Grain Pan Bread
Sprouted Grain Pan Bread
metric baker's %
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 0.807kg 20%
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 2.825kg 70%
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.404kg 10%
vital wheat gluten 0.121kg 3%
water 3.229kg 80%
salt 0.089kg 2.2%
yeast (fresh) 0.121kg 3%
soy or canola oil 0.081kg 2%
honey or sugar 0.323kg 8%
total yield 8kg 198.2%
sponge
Mix with 60°F water until smooth, leave at cool room temperature for 12-15 hours
mixing
Mix final dough on first speed for 4 minutes, on second speed for 6 minutes
desired dough temperature
78°F-80°F
first fermentation
20-30 minutes
dividing
Divide into 560g pieces (will vary with pan size)
shaping + proofing
Preshape into rounds, let rest for 20 minutes, shape into loaf and proof in pan for 60-90 minutes
baking
Bake at 350°F for 35 minutes with steam
sponge
metric baker's %
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 1.130kg 100%
water 0.735kg 65%
yeast (fresh) 0.001kg 0.1%
total yield 1.866kg 165.1%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Lancelot Flour 0.807kg
King Arthur 100% Sprouted Wheat Flour 1.695kg
King Arthur Sprouted Ancient Grains 0.404kg
vital wheat gluten 0.121kg
water 2.494kg
salt 0.089kg
yeast (fresh) 0.120kg
soy or canola oil 0.081kg
honey or sugar 0.323kg
sponge 1.866kg
total yield 8kg
66% Rye with Walnuts
metric baker's %
whole rye 3.3kg 33%
medium rye 3.3kg 33%
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 3.4kg 34%
water 8.0kg 80%
salt 0.18kg 1.8%
walnuts 2.5kg 25%
total yield 20.68kg 206.8%
note
Approximately 16 hours before the mix, disperse the sourdough culture into the water, add the rye flour and mix till smooth. Cover with plastic and leave at room temperature to ripen. At the same time, make the soaker by pouring the water over the old bread. Cover the soaker with plastic to prevent evaporation
mixing
Mix the final dough by adding all the ingredients to the mixer (first remove a portion of the rye to perpetuate the culture). If using a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes to incorporate ingredients. Check the hydration and correct as necessary: the dough should have a moderate looseness. Mix on second speed for about 1 minute. Gluten development will be minimal. Add the walnuts and mix until evenly incorporated
desired dough temperature
80-82°F
bulk fermentation
45 minutes
final proof
about 75 minutes at 85°F
shaping
Divide and shape round or oval loaves of desired weight
baking
Bake in a steamed oven at 450°F for about 50 minutes (for a 1 kg loaf)
sourdough
metric baker's %
whole rye 1.320kg 100%
water 1.096kg 83%
culture 0.066kg 5%
total yield 2.482kg 188%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 3.4kg
whole rye 1.98kg
medium rye 3.3kg
water 6.904kg
salt 0.18kg
walnuts 2.5kg
sourdough* 2.416kg
total yield 20.68kg

*Culture is removed before mixing Final Dough.

Old Bread Rye
metric baker's %
whole rye 3.3kg 33%
medium rye 3.3kg 33%
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 3.4kg 34%
water 7.5kg 75%
salt 0.2kg 2%
old bread** 1kg 10%
total yield 18.7kg 187%

**Slice day old bread, place on sheet pans, bake till dark.

note
Approximately 16 hours before the mix, disperse the sourdough culture into the water, add the rye flour and mix till smooth. Cover with plastic and leave at room temperature to ripen. At the same time, make the soaker by pouring the water over the old bread. Cover the soaker with plastic to prevent evaporation
mixing
Mix the final dough by adding all the ingredients to the mixer (first remove a portion of the rye to perpetuate the culture). If using a spiral mixer, mix on first speed for 3 minutes to incorporate ingredients. Check the hydration and correct as necessary: the dough should have a moderate looseness. Mix on second speed for about 1 minute. Gluten development will be minimal
desired dough temperature
80-82°F
bulk fermentation
45 minutes
shaping
Divide and shape round or oval loaves of desired weight
final proof
about 75 minutes at 85°F
baking
Bake in a steamed oven at 450°F for about 50 minutes (for a 1 kg loaf)
sourdough
metric baker's %
whole rye 1.155kg 100%
water 0.959kg 83%
culture 0.058kg 5%
total yield 2.171kg 188%
soaker
metric baker's %
old bread 1kg 100%
water 2kg 200%
total yield 3kg 300%
final dough
metric
King Arthur Sir Galahad Flour 3.4kg
whole rye 2.145kg
medium rye 3.3kg
water 4.541kg
salt 0.2kg
sourdough* 2.114kg
soaker 3.0kg
total yield 18.7kg

*Culture is removed before mixing Final Dough.