The customer service folks here at King Arthur Flour field requests from customers all day long. Many begin with the words “My mother [grandmother] used to make this thing, it was like a cake, only it had a lot of thin layers of…” Or, “Do you still sell that little twisty whisk thing…?” Or “Can you tell me if you’re giving any classes in Dallas [Des Moines, Decatur, Dothan…] soon?”
And then there are the baking questions. “Why do my cookies burn on the bottom?” “Why does my banana bread sink in the center?” And, perhaps the all-time most-asked question of all: “Why didn’t my bread rise?”
Talk about a loaded question—one fraught with mysterious side paths and dark twists and turns—that has to be it. “Why didn’t my bread rise?” Well, how long do you have? It could be the ingredients; it could be the way it was kneaded; it could be where you set the bowl; it could be whether it’s raining or sunny, for crying out loud. Yeast is a living thing; and when it gets together with flour and liquid and salt (and sugar and whatever else you want in your loaf), it acts like any other living thing, humans included: capriciously. Unpredictably. With a mind of its own.
Luckily, with practice you can become friends with yeast. Become familiar with it, understand its likes and dislikes, its quirky foibles (doesn’t like cinnamon; doesn’t like garlic; who knew?). And, with very little practice, you can become a good yeast bread baker. So long as you don’t insist on baking 100% whole wheat sandwich bread.
Ah, my bête noir… Would that it were as easy to make a soft, moist, nicely sliceable 100% whole wheat bread as it is to attain the same goal using all-purpose flour. Or even half whole wheat, half AP. But 100% whole wheat bread—wow, have I struggled with it over the years. And the struggle continued last week, as I sought The Perfect 100% Whole Wheat Sandwich Loaf for a new section on our recipe site, Guaranteed Classics, due to launch in a few months.
I’d spent two weeks trudging through loaf after loaf of 100% whole wheat bread. I knew the goal; I saw the prize out there on the horizon. But, like a mirage in the desert, the harder I struggled toward it, the more it receded. That high-rising, fine-grained, supple loaf, the one that slices like a dream without crumbling, the one that tastes like the best parts of whole wheat—nicely earthy, “nutty,” rich—had been eluding me. I’d made dry loaves; dense loaves; over-risen loaves, flabby with air and collapsing at the sidewalls. I’d made loaves whose overriding flavor was a tannic bitterness. Loaves that tasted like… well, like nothing much at all. I’d come close to despairing.
But as any bread baker knows, hope springs eternal. So long as there’s flour in the canister and yeast in the freezer, salt on the counter and water flowing from the tap, there’ll be bread. And yesterday, I came as close as I’ve come to my Holy Grail, 100% Whole Wheat Sandwich Bread.
And the secret is… I went back to my tried-and-true methods and ingredients. I’d been experimenting with different ways of kneading, different types of yeast, and different varieties of flour. So, like we all do sometimes when our computers go blooey, I went back to all my original whole wheat bread defaults: King Arthur White Whole Wheat Flour; SAF instant yeast; and a Zo bread machine, for kneading.
The result? Not unexpectedly, the dough kneaded up gnarly and clay-like, rather than smooth and supple. Whole wheat flour, with its tiny, sharp little bran particles, does an effective job of shredding its developing gluten as you knead. But said dough also showed adequate vigor during its first rise, and was even more cooperative during its second rise, crowning a perfect 1” over the rim of the pan. Thank you, my dear yeast… as you grow and prosper, your mere numbers help overcome the deleterious effects of the bran.
The loaves (I made three) showed good oven-spring as they baked, rising into smooth domes. When I pulled them out of the oven, they didn’t stick in the pans, instead sliding out “slick as a smelt,” as they’d say in Maine. A gilding of melted butter on the crust was a lovely final touch.
And the taste? Surprisingly delicious. Me, I’m a white bread fan at heart. But I can totally see enjoying this whole wheat bread—spread with peanut butter and jelly, toasted and sprinkled with cinnamon-sugar, as part of a BLT.
So here it is, my current state-of-the-baking-art 100% Whole Wheat Sandwich Bread. I’m sure the recipe will continue to evolve; but this is a good snapshot of a moment in time, a stopping place along the path. And hey, fellow bread bakers: if you have a 100% whole wheat sandwich bread recipe you love, one that bakes in a loaf pan and has all the attributes sandwich loaves need—easy to slice, moist and non-crumbly, tasty—let’s compare notes, OK?
Once I'd finally settled on a whole wheat bread recipe I thought was pretty good, I decided to test it with our three King Arthur whole wheat flours. And now, introducing our contestants: organic white whole wheat flour; traditional (red) whole wheat flour; and white whole wheat flour. All are unbleached 100% whole wheat; white whole wheat is simply a different strain than red, a lighter-colored, less assertively flavored flour. By the way, the "bandage" on the bag on the right is simply to keep its contents safely inside; we often get punctured bags from our warehouse to use here in the test kitchen.
You can see the slightly different colors of these three flours; the traditional whole wheat (right) is both darker, and more coarsely ground. The speckles are bits of bran.
And here they are, 75 minutes later, nicely risen. The organic white wheat loaf (l) had risen to 1 1/2” above the rim of the pan; the white wheat loaf, to 1” above the rim; and the traditional loaf to 3/4” above the rim.
Surprisingly, the organic white wheat (l) didn't have nearly as much oven spring as the white wheat (center), which had slightly more than the traditional (r). Nevertheless, I'd call them all good loaves: nice texture, moist, easy to slice.
AND tasty! As much as I always say I don't like whole wheat bread, when these loaves came out of the oven I couldn't resist. They really did taste divine, even without the peanut butter and jelly. We were in the midst of a meeting and I brought everyone a warm slice. As Tom, our marketing manager, said, “This is wonderful—it doesn't even need butter!”
So—I guess I'll eat my words, right along with this delicious bread! Maybe I DO like whole wheat bread...
Read, rate, and review (please!) our recipe for 100% Whole Wheat Sandwich Bread.
When you bake whole wheat bread at home, not only are you treating yourself to something fresh, delicious, and hot from the oven; you're saving money. The chart below shows a typical price for three different baked goods you might purchase at the supermarket, and the ingredients cost for you to make them at home.
|Cost of ingredients
at the supermarket
|KA AP flour||$5.39/5 lb.|
|KA bread flour||$5.29/5 lb.|
|KA whole wheat flour||$4.89/5 lb.|
|Instant mashed potatoes||$1.99/13 ¾ oz.|
|Baking powder||$1.79/10 oz.|
|Orange juice||$2.69/1/2 gallon|
|Cost of baked goods
at the supermarket
|Blueberry muffins||99¢ each (supermarket bakery) or $3.99 (18-ounce package of 6)|
|Whole wheat bread||$3.49/24-oz. loaf|
|Cost of ingredients
to make your own blueberry muffins
|4 ounces butter||60¢|
|¾ cup (5 ¼ ounces) sugar||17¢|
|2 large eggs||45¢|
|2 teaspoons (1/6 oz.) vanilla extract||43¢|
|1 ½ teaspoons (7g) baking powder||4¢|
|½ teaspoon (2.2g) baking soda||1/6¢|
|½ teaspoon (3g) salt||1/6¢|
|2 ¼ cups (9 ½ ounces) KA AP Flour||69¢|
|TOTAL||$4.04 for 33 oz. blueberry muffins averaging 2 ¾ ounces each|
|Cost of ingredients
to make your own bagels
|4 ½ cups (19 ounces) bread flour||$1.26|
|1 5/8 teaspoons yeast||6¢|
|1 ¾ teaspoons salt||2/3¢|
|Cost of ingredients
to make your own whole wheat bread
|2 1/2 teaspoons instant yeast||13¢|
|1/2 cup (4 ounces) lukewarm water|
|1/2 cup (4 ounces) lukewarm milk||11¢|
|1/2 cup (2 5/8 ounces) orange juice||8¢|
|5 tablespoons (2 1/2 ounces) melted butter||37¢|
|1 1/2 teaspoons salt||½¢|
|3 tablespoons (1 ¼ ounces) sugar||4¢|
|1/4 cup (5/8 ounce) nonfat dry milk||20¢|
|3/4 cup (1 5/8 ounces) dried potato flakes||24¢|
|3 3/4 cups (15 ounces) King Arthur White Whole Wheat Flour||92¢|
|TOTAL||$2.09/28-oz. loaf; $1.19/lb.|